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Submitted by admin on Thu, 07/08/2010 - 12:31
Troonstraat / rue du Trône 98b1
+32 2 551 03 24
Chief Executive Name
Steven De Keyser
Chief Executive Title
Chief Executive Email
Key representative
Kurt Van Damme
Head of Sales (Private), Legal & International
History of the organisation
a) History summary :
Reprobel was founded in 1994 and was appointed as central RRO for the old reprography scheme in 1997, with collections starting in 1998 and a first distribution to rightsholders in 2001. As from 2017, Reprobel is the central RRO for the reprography and publishers' remuneration in the private and public sector and for the separate education and research remuneration. Since 2005, Reprobel also administers PLR in Belgium.

b) Legal system :

Private and public sector: legal licence for photocopies (reprography remuneration to the benefit of authors and separate publishers' remuneration). Additional mandate-based licence for print-outs and for digital re-use of copyrighted works.
Education and research: legal licence for paper and digital reproductions and for secured network communication. No additional mandate-based licence.
PLR: legal licence.
Year of incorporation
Year of first distribution
Year of first collection
Total number of Board Members
How are Board Members elected
Representation of all CMOs (15) in board by virtue of Reprobel's statutes.
Total number of Author Representatives
Total number of Publisher Representatives
Remarks about the Board
President: Anne-Lize Vancraenem (SAJAM)
Vice-President: Sandrien Mampaey (License2Publish)
Chair of Authors College: Lara Leo (deAuteurs)
Chair of Publishers College: Marc Hofkens (SEMU)
Total Number of Member Associations
Total Publishers' Associations
Total Creators' (authors and visual artists) Associations
Remarks about the members
Reprobel members are Belgian CMOs representing authors and/or publishers.
(*) SABAM is represented in both the Authors and the Publishers College but is counted as only one Reprobel member.
Staff total number
Remarks about staff
Staff members counted in FTE
January 1 - December 31
Type of National legislation
Civil Law
Licensing system
Legal Licence
Other licensing system
Mandate-based licensing: print-outs and digital re-use in private and public sector.
Mandating Rights Holders
Indirect representation via authors' and publishers' CMOs (text & visual). Non-affiliated rightholders can claim directly from Reprobel under legal licences however. Scope of mandate is defined by law under legal licence. Additional mandates (15) from member CMOs for print-outs and for digital re-use in the private and public sector.
REPROGRAPHIC LICENCES - Types of works licensed
Text works (Authors College): Journalistic, literary, scientific/educational texts, other texts, musical works (excluding sheet music).
Text works (Publishers College): Books, Newspapers, Magazines, musical works (excluding sheet music), Other.
Visual works (Authors' College): Photos, other visual & graphic works.
Types of uses licensed
Private and public sector - combined licence covering photocopies under legal licence and print-outs and digital re-use under mandate base-based licence against one flat fee for all usages combined.
Education and research - photocopies, print-outs, scans, digital copies and secured network communication only. No additional mandate-base licence for other usages.
Public lending (PLR):: "analogue" only (physical works) under legal licence.
Types of institutions/sectors licensed
Professional users only (no private copying --)
Reprography & publishers remuneration: public & private sector (+ additional licence for print-outs and digital re-use in these sectors)
Education & research: officially recognized educational institutions of all levels and types + (public) research institutions
PLR: public libraries.
DIGITAL LICENCES - Types of works licensed
Private and public sector (prints and digital re-use): all text & image works except sheet music.
Education & research: all works covered by legal licence (text & image, AV and sound works) except sheet music.
PLR: none (physical works only)
Types of uses licensed
Education & research: paper and digital copies, and secured network transmission only.
Private and public sector: photocopies under legal licence, print-outs and digital re-use (scans, digital-to-digital copies, internal one-to-many digital communication, external one-to-few digital communication, digital presentations & digital archiving, excluding posting on public website) through additional mandate-based licence
PLR: analogue / physical works only (no e-books under legal licence)
Types of institutions/sectors licensed
Private and public sector, education / research, public libraries.
OTHER LICENCES - Public Lending Rights
Outline of Distribution plan and methodology used
As a general rule, Reprobel distributes to member CMOs of authors and publishers, which in turn pay out to individual authors or publishers. Non-title specific.
Distribution methods
Non title-specific distribution
Statistical surveys
% Author/Publisher Split
Text authors’ % share
Publishers' % share
Visual material authors’ % share
Administration costs as a percentage
11.40% (official ratio)
Are deductions for cultural and/or social purposes made?
New developments / legislation
Substantial reform of copyright law after HP Belgium ruling of CJEU in November 2015.
As from 2017, reprography equipment levies were scrapped, and separate legal licences were introduced for the private and public sector (reprography to the benefit of authors and parallel publishers' remuneration - photocopies only) and for state funded education and research (paper and digital copies and secured network communication). Publishers' remuneration installed on the basis of national law, outside EU copyright law. Reprography and publishers' remuneration governed by two separate Royal Decrees but identical per page tariff (de facto still 50/50).
New developments / court cases
After the HP Belgium ruling of the CJEU in November 2015, all subsequent national court rulings with importers have been ruled in favor of Reprobel (no direct effect of 2001 copyright directive - old reprography remuneration scheme fully applies). Recently, a cassation request by HP was dismissed by the Cour de Cassation. As a result, importers will have to declare and/or pay what is still outstanding for ref years 2015 and 2016. More than 10 court cases with importers still pending.
New developments / licensing
Mandate-based licence for private and public sector extended to digital re-use as from ref year 2020.
Number of Bilateral agreements type A
Bilateral agreements type A with
Copyright Agency (Australia), Literar-Mechana (Austria), Access Copyright (Canada), Copibec (Québec), CFC (France), VG Wort (Germany), ICLA (Ireland), JAAC (Japan), Pro Litteris (Liechtenstein and Switzerland), Luxorr (Luxemburg), Stichting Reprorecht (The Netherlands), Kopinor (Norway), DALRO (South Africa), CEDRO (Spain), CLA (UK), CCC (USA), Copydan (Denmark), SIAE (Italy), Copyright Polska (Poland), OSDEL (Greece), Kopiosto (Finland).
All relevant bilateral agreements extended or to be extended to digital usages in all professional sectors by end of 2021..
Number of Bilateral agreements type B
Bilateral agreements type B with
CAD (Argentina), DHK (Croatia), HKRRLS (Hong-Kong & Macau), HARR (Hungary), Fjölis (Iceland), JAMCOPY (Jamaica), KOPJAMALT (Malta), MASA (Mauritius), CEMPRO (Mexico), Repronig (Nigeria), LITA (Slovakia), KORRA (Korea).
Other agreements with RROs
PLR: Stichting PRO & Stichting LIRA (the Netherlands) & CCC/ACA (US)
Remarks about financial data
Financial data relate to FY 2020 - to be approved by Reprobel AGM in June 2021
Total amount collected for all licensing
23 624 536.00
Total amount collected for PLR
2 720 594.00
Total amount received for licensing from other RROs world-wide
737 864.00
Total amount distributed from all licensing
17 038 692.00
Total amount distributed from reproduction licensing
14 368 337.00
Total amount distributed to national rightsholders
10 613 202.00
Total amount distributed to national rightsholders from reproduction licensing
9 034 203.00
Total Amount distributed to foreign RROs
1 398 702.00
Total amount distributed from PLR
1 578 999.00
Administration Charge (actual figure)
2 309 114.00
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